「Describing actions in the Present, Future, and Past」
Japanese verbs use the same form for both the present and future tenses. The tense of the verb is made clear by the use of time adverbs or by context. Like the copula (pattern 1), Japanese verbs have plain and polite forms. The plain form (also known as dictionary form), is the form listed in dictionaries and generally used in writing and speech among family and friends. The polite form, also called the masu-form is used mainly among adults who are not close friends and in business. Japanese verbs can be separated into three groups: Regular I, Regular II, and Irregular. These are recognized as follows.
1. Regular I verbs: The dictionary form of regular I verb has a consonant plus a u-vowel ending: iku ("go"), yomu ("read")
2. Regular II verbs: The dictionary form of a regular II verb has a vowel (either e or i) and a ru ending: taberu ("eat"), miru ("see").
Exceptions: Some verbs ending with -eru or -iru are Regular I verbs:
kaeru ("return home"), hashiru ("run")
3. Irregular verbs: There are only two irregular verbs kuru ("come") and suru ("do"). Suru combines with nouns to form verbs: shigoto ("work"), shigoto suru ("do work"), doraibu ("drive") doraibu suru ("go for a drive").
The particle ni following a time-noun indicates the time at which someone or something does something or something happens. Ni is optional with the four seasons, haru ("spring"), natsu ("summer"), aki ("fall"), and fuyu ("winter"). Also, certain time-nouns that refer to broader time frames, rather than to specific times do not take ni: kyō ("today"), konshū ("this week"), raigetsu ("next month"), etc.
Konsāto wa gogo hachiji ni hajimaru.
The concert starts at 8 P.M.
Kachō wa getsuyōbi ni dekakemasu.
The section chief will leave on Monday.
Sagawa-san wa raishū kimasu.
Mr. Sagawa will come next month.
Watashitachi wa haru (ni) ryokō shimasu.
We travel in the spring.
「We will take a trip in the spring.」
Hope this helps!
°˖ ✧◝(○ ヮ ○)◜✧˖ ° こゆうきあいはら °˖ ✧◝(○ ヮ ○)◜✧˖ °