「Nen, Toshi - Year, Counter for year 」
Toshi ga anata o tsūka shi, anata ga sore o shitte iru mae ni, kyūjitsu wa koko ni irushi, sonogo kiete dono yō ni jinsoku ni odorokubekidesu.
「It is amazing how quickly a year passes by you, and before you know it, the holidays are here, and then gone.」
Sound and Syllables 「Cont.」
Double consonants in the Japanese language is interesting, they work similarly to double vowels insofar that you add a second one to the primary consonant. Other than that similarity, they are functionally different, the first way in which they differ is that the second consonant will always be the same as the the primary, also, there is no shorthand indicator that there is a double consonant unlike that with a vowel.
Double vowel word
Double consonant word
However, the biggest difference between a double consonant and vowel is what is done in the case of pronunciation of the word in Japanese. While, as previously stated a vowels' sound is extended「not altered」when doubled, a double consonant is slightly different in approach. When a double consonant is present in a Japanese word, there is a slight pause in the annunciation of that part of the word that has the doubled consonant. So in the case of a single consonant word such as sekai 「世界・World」it is simply pronounced as you see each sound [Seh-Kah-Ee] but with the consonant doubled like in the above example of Sekkei「設計・Design」it is pronounced [Seh-k--kei] there is about half a second of holding onto the beginning of the sound of the consonant. Other than that double consonants are easy to learn with practice, and keeping your eye out for them in words you are unfamiliar with, for there are similar words in Japanese where one word has the double consonant and the other does not, this can of course deliver the wrong message when speaking, but as long as you remain observant you shouldn't have any issues.
Language is something that should be enjoyed, have fun!
〈( ^.^)ノ Koyuuki (*^｡^*)
「SEI, Shō - Life I(kiru), I(keru) - Be alive I(kasu) Bring (back) to life, let live U(mu) - give birth to U(mareru) - be born ha(eru), ha(yasu), O(u) - grow Nama - raw Ki - Pure」
Tanoshimini shite nanika ga tsuneni arimasu, oboete irunode, anata ga shiawase ni ikite suru koto ga dekimasu mitsukeru koto ga dekimasu.
「Remember, there's always something to look forward to, so find what makes you happy to be alive.」
Sound and Syllables
The syllables in Japanese consist of a vowel A「あ」I 「い」U 「う」E 「え」O 「お」and a set of either a consonant or a consonant + Y and a vowel. There are exceptions, which are the small tsu 「きって - Kitte - Stamp」and the double vowel 「ああ(Ah) いい(Ee) うう(Ooh) ええ「えい」(Eh) おお「おう」(Oh)」 in the case of double e and double o it can be written ei「えい」 and ou 「おう」 respectively, however this does not change the way the word is said, it just extends the sound of the primary vowel. In the case of ei「えい」 it is still eh, and with ou「おう」 it is still ooh, just the sound of the primary vowels are extended, which of course is the case with all other extended vowels, though it is just the double e or double o that can use the i or u respectively along with a second e or o.
In Japanese, each syllable is pronounced with the same length unless the double consonants or vowels are present, and in the case of the double vowels it is just an extending of the sound of the vowel, but all of the characters in the word should still be pronounced equally.
「no double consonants or vowels」
it should however be pronounced in such a way that each sound naturally flows into the next character in the word
In the case of double vowels, it is important to realise that the extension of the sound does NOT change the sound, instead it gives the same sound as a single vowel word it is just that the sound is extended rather than altered like similar situations in English. Also, when a double vowel is written using roman letters 「called Romaji」the second vowel is removed and the line above the primary vowel and thus the sound to pronounce, denotes the extended length of annunciation that is required in that word, and if you see more than one, than each vowel which has it above requires that the indicated vowels' annunciation be extended as well.
In this case both vowels have the extension indicator above them so the "Oh" sound will need to be extended both times, which is different than Koshō 「こしょう・Pepper」which is pronounced Koh-Shooh, it is pronounced kooh-shooh, and remember, the extension does not change the sound of the vowel「which means there is no ooh sound involved with double O it just extends the Oh sound already present」, nor does it remove the need to enunciate each sound involved in the word.
ヾ( ~▽~)ﾂ Koyuuki ʿʿ˅⁽ˆ⁰ˆ˺ ⁾˺
「ゆび - yubi - finger」
Anata wa subete no tekisetsuna jijitsu o motte inai baai ni wa, sore wa anata ni modotte shiteki sa renai yō ni, kokuhatsu ni yubi o sasu yō ni kenmeide wa arimasen.
「When you do not have all the pertinent facts it is unwise to point a finger in accusation, lest it be pointed back at you.」
Characteristics of grammar 「Cont.」
Verb and Adjective Conjugation 「Cont.」
The usage of conjugation for verbs and adjectives in the Japanese language is to show non-past, past, negative, and affirmative form of a sentence.
A non-past form is used in order to indicate present and future tense, the past form is for past, present perfect, and past perfect tense in a sentence.
In Japanese the conjugation is unaffected by the type of subject of a sentence.
「Kitai - Expectation(s)」
Shitsubō o keigen suru tame ni, anata no kojin-tekina kitai o osaeru tame ni tsuneni yori yoidesu.
「It is always better to temper your personal expectations in order to mitigate disappointment. 」
「Kan, Ken, Aida - Interval (between) Ma - Interval (between a room)」
O ni-ri no ma no supēsu ga takusan aru node, amari otagai o akka sa senai yō ni kiwotsukete kudasai.
「There is a lot of space between the two of you, so please take care to not aggravate each other too much.」
Styles Of Speech 「Cont.」
In order to show respect, terms of honor are used when referring to others, whether that is in a professional or personal setting. Also the usage of humble speech is used to refer to oneself in the same settings.
Shachō ga nasai masu.
「The President will do it.」
watashi ga itashi masu.
「I will do it.」
watakushi ga sasete itadaki masu.
「I will do it.」
「Kōkishin - Curiosity」
Kōkishin wa neko o korosu koto ga dekiru ga, anata no kaiteki-sa no gaibu kara manabitai koto naku, anata ga hontōni kojin to shite seichō dekinai koto wa jijitsudesu.
「It is true that curiosity can kill the cat, but without the desire to learn from outside your comfort, you cannot truly grow as an individual.」
「Ji, Toki - Time; Hour」
Sono wa tsuneni kanō, anata ni totte jūyōna sorera no tame no jikan o tsukuru koto o o susume shimasu.
「Its is always a good idea to make time for those important to you when possible.」
Styles of speech「Cont.」
Casual speech is used among those who are familiar at one another, whether that is colleagues, friends, family members, or when speaking to children. It is commonly used for everyday situations, in order to use this speech the 'plain' verb form is used.
Watashi ga suru.
「I will do it.」
「Ji, Tera - Temple」
Watashi wa hontōni nihon'norekishi o mite, jiin o hōmon suru tame ni Kyōto o hōmon shitai to omoimasu.
「I really want to visit Kyoto in order to see the history of Japan, and visit the temples.」
「Hajime - Beginning, Outset」
「The J in the word makes a soft G sound, and the double E is extended sound from P"i"zza」
Hajime ni, anata wa anata no shujinkō no tame ni sakusei denshō ni rinikanatteiru kotai mochibēshon o motte iru hitsuyō ga arimasu.
「In the beginning, you need to have a solid motivation that makes sense in the lore that you create for your protagonist.」
Styles of speech
This type of speech is used commonly in more formal situations, including the classroom, businesses, or at a public speech or lecture.
Also used when you are talking to unfamiliar people to maintain a level of polite formality, and professional distance.
The polite speech verb , copula, and adjective 「desu, masu form」are used.
Watashi ga shimasu.
「I will do it.」
「Shōtotsu - Clash (of personalities)」
Tokiniha, demo yoi yūjin no gurūpu de, soko ni kosei no shōtotsu ga ari, soreha yūjin to shite iji suru kachigāru to iu mondai o koete miru koto ga dekiru hitodesu.
「Sometimes, even in a group of good friends, there is a clash of personalities, and it is the people who can see beyond that problem, that are worth keeping as friends.」
「Koku, Kuni - Country」
Hitobito nashi de, sore ga shinde karadearu tame,-kokude wa naku,-koku jitai no hitobito e no chūsei kokoro o motte iru kata ga yoidesu.
「It is better to have loyalty to the people in a country, rather than the country itself, because without the people, it is a lifeless husk.」
Characteristics of grammar 「cont.」
Grammatical function indicator: Particles 「cont.」
Question Marker か「ka」
The sentence particle か「ka」is attached to a statement, to change it to a question.
hiru gohan o tabe masu.
I eat breakfast./I am going to eat breakfast.
Hiru gohan o tabe masu ka?
Do you eat breakfast?/Are you going to eat breakfast?
Note: The reason for the two separate ways to say it in English is due to the context of the conversation.
「Setsu, Sai, Ki(ru) - cut Ki(reru) - cut well; break off; run out of; be sharp」
Anata ga shitai toki ni sashimi no yōna mono wa, kanōnakagiri, sore wa usuku kiru shite kudasai.
「when you want to make something like sashimi make sure to cut it thin as possible.」
Characteristics of grammar 「Cont.」
Grammatical function indicators: Particles 「Cont.」
Subject marker が「ga」
が「ga」 is used for marking the subject if the information is new to the listener.
が「ga」is also used in the following structure of these examples:
Watashi wa me ga aoi desu.
「As for me, the eyes are blue.」
Tōkyō wa ga hito ooi desu.
「There are lots of people in Tokyo.」
「BUN - Portion BU - Portion, 1 percent FUN - Minute (of time/arc)
Wa(keru), Wa(karu) - Divide, share, distinguish Wa(kareru) - be separated Wa(karu) - understand」
Tanin no omoiyari to anata no bubun yori mo ōku o toru koto wa arimasen shite kudasai.
「Please be considerate of others and do not take more than your portion.」